Cusco History Information
More than 3000 years old support it to be considered like the oldest effective city of America. Cusco, and its cultural and geographical diversity, have suffered and enjoyed avatars over the years, which have made it a historical center of study and the most important tourist focus of the country.
Opinions differ as to the first settlers of the city. Some say that it was the village of Marcavalle, or the tribes of Sawasiras, Antasayas and Wallas, that once inhabited the valley. Others are based on Incan mythology, which gives Manko Qhapaq and Pachakuteq the foundation of the city. There is no certainty for either position; What does exist is a large number of pre-ceramic samples that support the title of antiquity assigned to the city.
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Pre-ceramics that correspond to the Men of Yauri and Chumbivilcas with an approximate age of 5 thousand years a.c., the shepherds of Canas in Chawaytiri and the Men of Qorqa, dedicated to the farm and herding.
In the Formative period, the city began to be inhabited from the Watanay Valley or Cusco Valley. In the sedentary period, 1000 BC, Marcavalle was the chosen place to settle. This city was located in the east side of the city, and had a precariously organized population of farmers and pastors.
Around 800 years a.c., the culture of Chanapata was developed, and at 600 years d.c. Was created Qotakalli, which was the first region of the system of Regional States implanted. Subsequently, as a result of the Wari invasion, the regional state of Killki was created in 800 d.c, and Profit by the year 1000 d. C.
The beginning of the Inca civilization was given in 1200 d.c. And its expansive phase in the 1400 d.c.
What follows is a known history, on November 15, 1533, the Spaniards arrived and with them the fall of the empire, and an abrupt cultural irruption that moved the capital to Lima.
But the fighting spirits did not travel to the new capital, on the contrary, they remained in Cusco. One of the main expressions of this spirit was the uprising of Manko Inka, which lasted from 1536 to 1572, when the last member of the Inca dynasty, Tupac Amaru, was defeated and executed.
But we can not forget the greatest precursor of Peruvian independence, Tupac Amaru II or Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru Inga who, in 1780, initiated a new rebellion that unquestionably marked the most significant precedent against the Spanish regime in America. Unfortunately, a betrayal was the cause of his defeat and execution with his family, in the Plaza Mayor of the same city that saw him born.
The precedent had been set, and was followed by Mateo Pumacahua and Angulo brothers, who propitiated another rebellion between 1814 and 1815.
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Finally, in 1821, the product of incessant struggles and integral South American support, Peru achieved its independence from Spain. And by 1933, Cusco was declared the “Archaeological Capital of South America” by the Americanist Congress held in Argentina.
But not only did the rebellions strike the city, but so did the power of nature, with a 7th earthquake in 1950 that left only a quarter of its original buildings standing.
However, because of the great cultural and historical magnificence, Cusco received innumerable samples of worldwide recognition, as given in 1978 by the 7th. Convention of Mayors of the Great World Cities, held in Milan – Italy, which declared Cusco as the “Cultural Heritage of the World”. UNESCO, for its part, gave it the title of “Cultural Heritage of Humanity” in 1983.
Peru was not far behind, and on December 22, 1983, recognized the portent of its Andean interiors with a law declaring the city of Cusco as the “Cultural Heritage of the Nation” and “Tourist Capital of Peru.”